Electronegativity






So what is electronegativity:

                                     It's the ability of an element to attract electrons towards itself when it's bonded.


Definition of electronegativity by  Linus Pauling:

when the atom is bonded covalently the attraction force exerted to the electrons which are responsible for the covalent bond, is electronegativity.


Now I would like to express factors that affecting to electronegativity either decrease or increase.

01.No. of protons

02.Ionization energy 

03.Number and nature of atoms

04.Type of hybridization.

05.The charge on the ion.

Let's look how these factors affect to electronegativity,

01.No. of protons

                            When  there is more protons  attraction force of electrons towards protons is more, so electronegativity is get increased when there is more protons.

02.Ionization energy:

                           If there is high ionization energy needed to particular element, attraction of electrons to the  nucleus is high which means there is high electronegativity.

03.Number and nature of atoms:

                          In a compound,  electronegativity  depends on the number  & nature of bonds in that particular compound.(this is valid only for compounds)
                             
04.Type of hybridization:
                         If there aremore "s" orbitals  electronegativity  is going to be increased , because   "s" orbitals are more closer to the nucleus 

05.Charge on the ion :
                        In cation  electronegativity  is high relative to parent atom of it. Because in cation there is more positive charge.
                         In anion  electronegativity  is low  relative to parent atom of it. Because in anion there is more negative charge.
                      

Electronegativity is expressed in scale of  Linus Pauling

Now let's look at the periodic trend of electronrgativity and reasons for that particular trend :

 01. Across a period electronegativity increases
 02.Down a group  electronegativity decreases


So why electronegativity increase across a period :


Electrons are attracted to protons, because protons are positively charged . As you move across period you can see an increment  of number of protons  , so attraction increases across a period  then finally electronegativity is increased.



So why down a group  electronegativity decreases

When you going down a group always there is an addition of main energy level ,so the attraction force to nucleus get decreased each time when you travel down a group, so finally  electronegativity decreases   down a group..







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